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All the curriculum materials needed to implement the Literate Adolescents Reading Intervention Program (LAIP) appear on this website. The Simple View of Reading provides the theoretical and organizational framework for the LAIP program, with decoding and comprehension its two major instructional components.  The curriculum includes materials and activities appropriate for use by reading interventionists and both general and special education teachers



The LAIP reading intervention program is based on the Simple View of Reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986). The Simple View proposes that reading can be understood as the product of two distinct components, decoding and comprehension (R = D x C). Accordingly, decoding (D) refers to the ability to read words accurately and efficiently. Comprehension (C) refers to linguistic or language comprehension. In this view reading comprehension (R) is a combination of decoding skills and the ability to understand language. Both components are necessary and neither component alone is sufficient for successful reading. For this reason, LAIP includes multiple instructional components, some essential for the development of automatic word decoding skills and others essential for the comprehension of grade level texts. 



Decoding Instruction

LAIP decoding instruction focuses on identification of multisyllabic words, those words that are found in the grade level texts adolescents are expected to read (Archer et al., 2003). Instruction is explicit, intentionally directing students’ attention to what they are to do and to learn; and instruction is systematic, building on what students already know and moving incrementally to more complex word identification skills. Decoding instruction also includes practice applying word identification strategies in context. Through reading and rereading engaging passages students build fluency, the automatic and effortless identification of words.

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Comprehension Instruction

Evidence-based reading comprehension instruction consists of explicit comprehension strategy instruction and the application of strategies within authentic texts. In secondary settings, additional value is added when instruction engages adolescent learners in discussion and encourages their participation within a social context. LAIP comprehension instruction builds on Reciprocal Teaching, a well researched approach designed to increase reading comprehension through the integrated use of four specific reading strategies: summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting (Palincsar & Brown, 1984).


Knowing the meaning of words has long been associated with reading comprehension. Therefore, effective comprehension instruction must also support students’ development of vocabulary knowledge. Given that the vast majority of the academic and multisyllabic words in secondary content areas have Latin and Greek origins, morphology instruction is particularly well suited for adolescent learners (Rasinski et al., 2008). When combined with the direct and robust teaching of high utility words (Beck et al., 2013), LAIP provides a comprehensive and evidence-based approach to vocabulary instruction.  

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